“OF TRUTH” is the indicative of the greatness of Bacon's mind and art. Having philosophic and pragmatic bias of mind, Bacon shares with us the astonishing aspects of truth. In this essay, Bacon has presented the objective truth in various manifestations. Similarly, Bacon shares with us the subjective truth, operative in social life. “OF TRUTH”, reveals Bacon in different light because he shows his moralistic leaning than his prudential attitude. However, the tone of this essay is Bacon's usual tone, authoritative.
“OF TRUTH” is Bacon's masterpiece that shows his keen observation of human beings with special regard to truth. In the beginning of the essay, Bacon rightly observes that generally people do not care for truth as Pilate, the governor of the Roman Empire, while conducting the trial of Jesus Christ, cares little for truth:
"What is truth? Said jesting Pilate; and would not stay for an answer."
Advancing his essay, Bacon explores the reasons why the people do not like truth. First, truth is acquired through hard work and man is ever reluctant to work hard. Secondly, truth curtails man's freedom. More than that the real reason of man's disliking to truth is that man is attached to lies which Bacon says "a natural though corrupt love of the lie itself." Man loves falsehood because, Bacon says, truth is as if the bright light of the day and would show what men, in actual, are. They look attractive and colourful in the dim light of lies. In this respect, Bacon rightly observes:
"A mixture of a lie doth ever add pleasure."
It is a fact that man prefers to cherish illusions, which make his life more interesting. With a profound observation of man's psychology, Bacon states that if deprived of false pride and vanities, the human mind would contract like a deflated balloon and these human beings would become poor, sad and ill. However, poetic untruth is not gone unnoticed by Bacon's piercing intellect. He says though poetic untruth is a wine of the Devil in priest's eyes, yet it is not as harmful as the other lies are. Bacon being a literary artist illustrates this concept with an apt imagery that the poetic untruth is but the shadow of a lie.
Proving himself highly moralistic person, Bacon deems the inquiry of truth as the highest good of human nature as he observes:
".... the inquiry of truth, which is the lovemaking or wooing of it, knowledge of truth, which is the presence of it and the belief of truth, which is the enjoying of it, is the sovereign good of human nature."
The enquiry of truth, knowledge of truth and belief of truth are compared with the enjoyment of love. Such a comparison lends the literary charm to this essay.
Bacon further says in “OF TRUTH” that the last act of creation was to create rational faculty, which helps in finding truth, is the finished product of God's blessing as he says:
"... The last was the light of reason...is the illumination of his spirit."
Bacon's moral idealism is obvious when he advancing his argument in favour of truth asserts that the earth can be made paradise only with the help of truth. Man should ever stick to truth in every matter, do the act of charity and have faith in every matter, do the act of charity and have faith in God. Bacon's strong belief in truth and Divinity is stated thus:
"Certainly, it is heaven upon earth, to have a man's mind move in charity, rest in Providence, and turn upon the poles of truth."
From the objective truth, Bacon passes judgment, to the subjective truth, which he calls "the truth of civil business". It is the compelling quality of truth, Bacon observes, that the persons who do not practice truth, acknowledge it. Bacon's idealistic moral attitude is obvious in these lines when he says: "..... that clear and round dealing is the honour of man's nature; and that mixture of falsehood is like alloy in coin of gold and silver, which may make the metal work better, but it embaseth it."
Bacon further asserts that the liars are like a snake that goes basely upon the belly and not upon the feet. Imagery comprising comparison is apt and convincing. Moreover, Bacon refers to Montaigne who is of the view that "a lie faces God and shrinks from man". Bacon adds that falsehood is the height of wickedness and as such will invite the Judgment of God upon all human beings on Doom's day. Therefore, Bacon concludes his essay with didacticism with a tinge of Christian morality.
In the essay, “OF TRUTH”, there is no digression. All the arguments in the essay pertain to the single main idea, truth. Bacon's wide learning is clearly observed when he refers to Pilate (history), Lucian (Greek literature), Creation, Montaigne (a French essayist). “OF TRUTH” is enriched with striking similes and analogies, such as he equates liars as a snake moving basely on its belly, mixture of falsehood is like an alloy of gold and silver and many more.
The essay “OF TRUTH” is not ornamental as was the practice of the Elizabethan prose writers. Bacon is simple, natural and straightforward in his essay though Elizabethan colour is also found in “OF TRUTH” because there is a moderate use of Latinism in the essay. Economy of words is found in the essay not alone, but syntactic brevity is also obvious in this essay. We find conversational ease in this essay, which is the outstanding feature of Bacon's style. There is a peculiar feature of Bacon i.e. aphorism. We find many short, crispy, memorable and witty sayings in this essay.
Therefore, Bacon's essay “OF TRUTH” is rich in matter and manner. This is really a council 'civil
and moral'. This essay has to be read slowly and thoughtfully because it is extremely condensed and it is a model of succinct and lucid prose.
Bacon is a consummate artist of Renaissance spirit. Thus he knows the expanse of knowledge and utility of studies. He advocates a scientific enquiry of studies. Through an exquisite metaphor drawn from Botany he compares human mind to a growing plant. As the growing plants need to be pruned and watered and manured for optimum development, the new growing conscience of us are to be tutored, mounded, oriented and devised by studies. But it is experience which ultimately matures our perception and leads us to perfection:
“They perfect nature, and are perfected by experience: for natural abilities are like natural plants that need proyning by study”.
Next Bacon considers what persons despise studies and what people praise them and what people make practical use of them. The crafty men condemn studies; simple men admire them while the wise men make ultimate use of it. But it should be remembered that the inquisitive mind and keen observation cultivate the real wisdom. Bacon advises his readers to apply studies to ‘weigh and consider’ rather than useless contradictions and grandiloquence.
In The Advancement of Learning Bacon makes systematic classifications of studies and considers different modes to be employed with different kinds of books: “Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed and some few to be chewed and digested”.
The books according to its value and utility are to be devised into various modes of articulations. The worthy classical pragmatic sort are to be adorned by expertise reading with diligence while the meaner sort of books or less important books are to be read in summary or by deputy. Again the global span of knowledge is revealed in his analysis of various subjects and their beneficent categories. The scholarly mind of Bacon here makes the subtle observation:
“Histories make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtle; natural philosophy deep; moral grave; logic and rhetoric able to contend”.
Studies do not shape a perfect man without the needed conference and writing. “And therefore if a man write little, he had need have a great memory; if he confer little he had need have much cunning, to seem to know that he doth’ not”. Bacon further tells us that our studies pass into our character (Abeunt studia in mores). Rightly so the constitution of our moral disposition is the outcome of our learning and experience.
Every defect of the mind, Bacon says, may be cured by a proper choice of reading. Bacon here draws a parallel between the physical exercise and intellectual exercise. As different games, sports, exercises beget growth and development, the different branches of studies cures the in capability of logic, wondering of wit, lack of distinguish etc. Bacon emphatically concludes that every defect of the mind may have a special receipt and remedial assurance.
Of Studies contains almost all the techniques of Bacon’s essay writing and the world of his mind. It is full of wisdom, teachings and didacticism. In style, the essay is epigrammatic proverbial form, of balance and force. It is full of warmth and colour, profound wit and knowledge, experience and observation.
To get a better view of the essay Of Studies I will suggest you to read his important books like TheAdvancement of Learning, New Atlantis or Novum Organum.In all these works Bacon's philosophic mind suggests some pragmatic guidelines for life and its management.
Again remember it that Of Studies is adapted from his Essays which is given its subtitle 'The Counsel, Civil and Moral'--- hints thus to pragmatic advice of better way of life.