Unit 1 Health Care Systems Assignment Sheet

Cybersecurity

While there are significant benefits for care delivery and organizational efficiency from the expanded use of networked technology, Internet-enabled medical devices and electronic databases for clinical, financial and administrative operations, networked technology and greater connectiv...

Regulatory Relief

Every day, hospitals, health systems and post-acute care providers confront the daunting task of complying with a growing number of federal regulations. They are constantly challenged to understand and implement new or revised regulations, while maintaining their core mission of providi...

Drug Prices

Unchecked drug price increases are not sustainable, and are a serious economic threat to the patients and communities we serve. They not only threaten patient access to drug therapies, but challenge providers’ abilities to provide the highest quality of care. Did you know? In 2015, ...

Tax-Exempt Status

Not-for-profit community hospitals do more than care for the injured and infirm; they promote and protect the health and well-being of their communities. They work to make their communities healthier through numerous community outreach programs, education efforts, health screenings, an...

Reducing Health Care Disparities

Research has shown that individuals of color, of various ethnic backgrounds, religions, sexual orientation, or with limited English proficiency have less access to care, receive different care and often have worse health than those who are white. AHA and its members strive to help all ...

Telehealth

From emergency department care to remote patient monitoring for chronic care management and access to care from specialists, telehealth is changing the way health care is provided –- both expanding patient access to routine and specialty care while improving patient satisfaction and out...

Medicaid

Medicaid is the nation’s largest single source of coverage primarily serving low-income populations – children and their families, adults, seniors and disabled individuals. The program provides a broad array of health care services such as primary and acute care services, as well as lon...

Workforce

An aging population, better care coordination and integrating behavioral and physical health care are all challenges the changing health care workforce must address. The American Hospital Association’s Workforce Center supports hospitals facing unique workforce issues by providing the ...

Emergency Readiness

AcronymsCDC Centers for Disease Control and PreventionDHS Department of Homeland SecurityDMAT Disaster Medical Assistance TeamDMORT Disaster Mortuary Operational Response TeamDoD Department of DefenseDOE Department of EnergyDOJ Department of JusticeFBI Federal Bureau of InvestigationFEM...

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used when people are engaging in well-known, oft-repeated processes and their cognitive processes when problem solving. The former are handled rapidly, effortlessly, in parallel with other tasks, and with little direct attention. Errors may occur because of interruptions, fatigue, time pressure, anger, anxiety, fear, or boredom. Errors of this sort are expectable, but conditions of work can make them less likely. For example, work activities should not rely on weak aspects of human cognition such as short-term memory. Safe design, therefore, avoids reliance on memory.

Problem-solving processes, by contrast, are slower, are done sequentially (rather than in parallel with other tasks), are perceived as more difficult, and require conscious attention. Errors are due to misinterpretation of the problem that must be solved, lack of knowledge to bring to bear, and habits of thought that cause us to see what we expect to see. Attention to safe design includes simplification of processes so that users who are unfamiliar with them can understand quickly how to proceed, training that simulates problems, and practice in recovery from these problems.

As described in Chapter 3, instances of patient harm are usually attributed to individuals "at the sharp end" who make the visible error. Their prevention, however, requires systems that are designed for safety—that is, systems in which the sources of human error have been systematically recognized and minimized.15,16

In recent years, students of system design have looked for ways to avoid error using what has been called by Donald Norman17 "user-centered design." This chapter draws on six strategies that Norman outlines. They are directed at the design of individual devices so that they can be used reliably and safely for their intended purposes. Although these strategies are aimed at the human-machine interface, they can also be usefully applied to processes of care.

The first strategy is to make things visible—including the conceptual model of the system—so that the user can determine what actions are possible at any moment—for example, how to turn off a piece of equipment, how to change settings, and what is likely to happen if a step in a process is skipped. The second strategy is to simplify the structure of tasks so as to minimize the load on working memory, planning, or problem solving.

A third strategy is what Norman calls the use of affordances and natural mappings. An affordance is a characteristic of equipment or workspace that communicates how it is to be used, such as a push bar on an outward opening door that indicates where to push. Another example is a telephone handset that is uncomfortable to hold in any position but the correct one.

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