Maka Diyos Essay Outline

Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa ("For God, People, Nature and Country") is the national motto of the Philippines. Derived from the last four lines of the Pledge of Allegiance to the Philippine Flag, it was adopted on February 12, 1998 with the passage of Republic Act No. 8491, the Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines, during the presidency of Fidel V. Ramos.[1] Its adoption came twelve years after the abolition of the country's previous motto,[2] "Isang Bansa, Isang Diwa", which was adopted during the presidency of Ferdinand Marcos in 1979

The motto has been interpreted as embodying a set of common core Filipino values, with each of the four being connected to one another.[3] Columnist Bobit Avila of the Philippine Star interpreted the motto as showing that Filipinos love God first before anything else.[4] Another columnist, Kay Malilong Isberto of The Freeman, the Cebu City-based sister paper of the Star, meanwhile explains that the motto represents the duties of good Filipino citizens.[5]

Although Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa was made official in 1998, most Filipinos are unaware of it. In 2007, columnist Geronimo L. Sy wrote in the Manila Times that the Philippines didn't have a national motto (which he called a "national slogan") and that many of the societal problems plaguing the country were because of a lack of common direction that a national motto would embody,[6] despite the Flag and Heraldic Code being made law nine years earlier. Isberto would later suggest that most people probably don't know that there is a national motto to begin with, and of those who do know that there is one, they probably didn't take the time to contemplate how the motto should apply to their everyday lives.[5]

Avila notes that while "Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa" is "perfect" as a national motto, he claims that because most Filipinos only look out for themselves, they don't abide by the doctrines of their Christian faith, which makes the motto problematic in comparison to mottos like "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika".[4] This is in sharp contrast to his 2013 criticism of "Isang Bansa, Isang Diwa", which he denounced as embodying poorly-executed Jacobinist thought.[7]

The national motto is inscribed in the Great Seal of the Philippines and the last part of the Pledge of Allegiance

 :Ako ay Pilipino
Buong katapatang nanunumpa
Sa watawat ng Pilipinas
At sa bansang kanyang sinasagisag
Na may dangal, katarungan at kalayaan
Na pinakikilos ng sambayanang
Makakalikasan at

See also[edit]


  1. ^Republic of the Philippines. (Enacted: February 12, 1998). REPUBLIC ACT No. 8491 - AN ACT PRESCRIBING THE CODE OF THE NATIONAL FLAG, ANTHEM, MOTTO, COAT-OF-ARMS AND OTHER HERALDIC ITEMS AND DEVICES OF THE PHILIPPINES. Retrieved April 9, 2016 from the ChanRobles Virtual Law Library.
  3. ^Andrade, Jeanette I. (August 30, 2014). "Luistro says DepEd still for 'God-fearing' learners". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Philippine Daily Inquirer, Inc. Retrieved April 11, 2016. 
  4. ^ abAvila, Bobit S. (April 27, 2011). "Unity? PNoy must reconcile with the church!". The Philippine Star. PhilStar Daily, Inc. Retrieved April 11, 2016. 
  5. ^ abIsberto, Kay Malilong (June 9, 2009). "A National Motto". The Freeman. PhilStar Daily, Inc.Retrieved April 11, 2016. 
  6. ^Sy, Geronimo L. (July 5, 2007). "A national slogan". The Manila Times. Manila Times Publishing Corporation. Retrieved April 11, 2016 – via Google News. 
  7. ^Avila, Bobit S. (August 22, 2013). "Make language part of our inclusive growth". The Philippine Star. PhilStar Daily, Inc. Retrieved April 10, 2016. 

1. Coat of arms of the Philippines – The current arms, which shares many features of the national flag, was designed by Filipino artist and heraldist Captain Galo B. The said lion shall hold in his paw a sword with guard, along with this, the lesser arms of the Spanish monarch was used. Minor details of the arms had changed over the years but the design elements remained. During the 1896 Philippine Revolution, the Filipino leaders had no permanent political symbol, both consisted of an equilateral triangle, but differed on what symbols were placed inside the triangle. Many documents of the Katipunan bore a letter K which stood for Kalayaan, general Emilio Aguinaldo, officially the first President of the Philippines, adopted the mythological sun and the three stars in each angle of the equilateral triangle as his emblem. During the American Occupation, a law was enacted prescribing a new coat of arms for the islands and it also bore as its crest an American eagle, the symbol of United States. Beneath the shield was the scroll with the words Philippine Islands and it remained unaltered until the inauguration of Commonwealth of the Philippines in 1935. During the Commonwealth, extensive reform was made to the government in preparation for Philippine independence, one of major changes was changing the symbol for Filipinos. The Arms and Great Seal of the Commonwealth Government of the Philippines was approved in 1935, the sea lion was made gold instead of silver and the eagle was slightly enlarged and placed closer to the arm. The word Commonwealth of the Philippines replaced Philippine Islands in the scroll below, on 15 December 1938, President Manuel L. Quezon created the Special Committee of Arms of the Philippines. After almost two years of study, the committee recommended certain modifications to the coat of arms of the Commonwealth of the Philippines and they recommended that the eight-ray Philippine sun must be the point of honor. On the crest is the American eagle, its talon grasping a branch with eight leaves and eight fruits. Beneath the shield was the scroll with the inscription Philippines, after providing the various branches of the government with their own symbols, President Quezon created the Philippine Heraldic Committee in 1940. The committee was assigned the studying and recommending the designs and symbolism for official seals of Philippines political subdivision, cities, the heraldic work of the committee was suspended during the Pacific War. During the Second Philippine Republic, a nationalistic policy were adopted. Foreign components of the Filipino heraldic symbol which represented its colonial links to Spain. Written within three sets of two lines of the three sides of the triangle were Kalayaan, Kapayapaan, Katarungan. Around the seal was a double marginal circle within which was written Republika ng Pilipinas, after World War II, President Sergio Osmeña reactivated the Philippine Heraldic Committee

2. Philippines – The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south, Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao, the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 square kilometers, and it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. As of 2013, approximately 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelagos earliest inhabitants and they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Chinese, Malay, Indian, and Islamic nations occurred, then, various competing maritime states were established under the rule of Datus, Rajahs, Sultans or Lakans. The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization, in 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Roman Catholicism becoming the dominant religion, during this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, since then, the Philippines has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution. It is a member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. It also hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank, the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte, eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other such as Islas del Poniente. The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history, during the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the name Philippines began to appear, since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. The metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago is the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date and this distinction previously belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago. Negritos were also among the archipelagos earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated, there are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos

3. Pledge of Allegiance to the Philippine Flag – The Pledge of Allegiance to the Philippine Flag is the pledge to the flag of the Philippines. It is one of two national pledges, the other being the Patriotic Oath, which is the Philippine national pledge. The Pledge of Allegiance to the Philippine Flag is recited at flag ceremonies immediately after the Patriotic Oath or, if the Patriotic Oath is not recited, the pledge was legalized under Executive Order No. The law requires the pledge to be recited while standing with the hand with palm open raised shoulder high. The law makes no statement of what language the pledge must be recited in, in English translation, the motto is For God, People, Nature and Country. The Philippine Motto can also be read as the oath at the Text of the Pledge of Allegiance to the Philippine flag, Flag of the Philippines Lupang Hinirang Panatang Makabayan

4. Fidel Ramos – Fidel Valdez Ramos AFP PLH GCMG, popularly known as FVR and Eddie is a retired Filipino general and politician who served as the 12th President of the Philippines from 1992 to 1998. During his six years in office, Ramos was widely credited and admired by many for revitalizing and renewing international confidence in the Philippine economy and he was the father of the Philippine Armys Special Forces and the Philippine National Police Special Action Force. Ramos was able to secure major peace agreements with Muslim separatists, communist insurgents and military rebels, Ramos also aggressively pushed for the deregulation of the nations major industries and the privatization of bad government assets. As a result of his approach to the economy, the Philippines was dubbed by various internationally as Asias Next Economic Tiger. However, the momentum in the gains made under his administration was briefly interrupted during the onset of the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis. Nevertheless, during the last year of the term, the managed to make a rebound since it was not severely hit by the crisis as compared to other Asian economies. He also oversaw the Philippine Centennial Independence celebrations in 1998, a member of the United Church of Christ in the Philippines, Ramos is notably the first and to date only Protestant president of the majority Roman Catholic country. Fidel Ramos was born on March 18,1928 in Lingayen and his father, Narciso Ramos, was a lawyer, journalist and five-term legislator of the House of Representatives, who eventually rose to the position of Secretary of Foreign Affairs. As such, Narciso Ramos was the Philippine signatory to the ASEAN declaration forged in Bangkok in 1967 and he received elementary education in Lingayen Public Schools. Ramos began secondary education at the University of the Philippines High School in the City of Manila and he graduated high school from Centro Escolar University in 1945. He later on enrolled with a degree in Civil Engineering at National University in Manila and he was Top 8 in the Civil Engineering Board Exam in 1953. In addition, he received a total of 29 honorary doctorate degrees, Ramos went to the United States Military Academy at West Point, and he graduated in 1950. Ramos, along with the Philippines 20th Battalion Combat Team and the Philippine Expeditionary Forces to Korea and he was an Infantry Reconnaissance Platoon Leader. Ramos was one of the heroes of the Battle of Hill Eerie and he was also present in the Vietnam War as a non-combat civil military engineer and Chief of Staff of the Philippine Civil Action Group. Military Academy Distinguished Graduate Award and Legion of Merit, during his stint at the Philippine Army, Ramos founded the Philippine Army Special Forces. And then, he was named to the commander of the Armys 3rd Division based in Cebu City, Ramos headed the Philippine Constabulary, then a major service branch of the Armed Forces, that acted as the countrys national police until 1972, when Ferdinand Marcos imposed Martial Law. Ramos is held responsible by for human rights abuses committed under Martial Law as head of the Philippine Constabulary chief, as head of the PC, Ramos was ex officio the INPs first concurrent Director-General. Martial Law was formally lifted nine years later on January 17,1981, due to his accomplishments, Ramos became one of the candidates to become the new chief of staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines in 1981, to replace retiring General Romeo Espino

5. Ferdinand Marcos – Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr. was a Filipino politician who was President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. He ruled as a dictator under martial law from 1972 until 1981, while his regime started an unprecedented number of infrastructure projects and monuments, it also became infamous for its corruption and brutality. United States Army documents described the claim as fraudulent and absurd and he was elected President in 1965. The Philippine national debt used to fund development projects grew from $2 billion at the beginning of his term to $26 billion by the end of 1985. Based on World Bank data, Philippine Annual Gross Domestic Product grew from $5.27 billion in 1964 to $37.14 billion in 1982, by the end of 1985, GDP stood at $30.7 billion following two years of economic contraction. All in all despite the 1984–1985 recession, GDP per capita grew at a rate of 5. 8%, or more than tripled. It was only in 1992 at the beginning of the term of Fidel Ramos when GDP per capita, Martial law was ratified by 90. 77% of the voters during the Philippine Martial Law referendum,1973 though the referendum was marred with controversy. Ramos and Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile, public outrage led to the snap elections of 1986. Allegations of mass cheating, political turmoil and excesses of human rights led to the People Power Revolution in February 1986. Marcos was succeeded by Corazon Aquino, widow of the opposition leader Senator Benigno Aquino. According to source documents provided by the Presidential Commission on Good Government, a government agency created by the Aquino Government, PCGG also maintained that the Marcos family enjoyed a decadent lifestyle—taking away billions of dollars from the country in the course of their US-backed rule between 1965 and 1986. His wife Imelda Marcos, whose excesses during the couples kleptocracy made her infamous in her own right, numerous criminal graft charges have been filed against her, some of which are still ongoing, and most have been dismissed by the court due to lack of evidence. He was later baptized into the Philippine Independent Church, but was first baptized in the Roman Catholic Church at the age of three, in December 1938, Ferdinand Marcos was prosecuted for the murder of Julio Nalundasan. He was not the accused from the Marcos clan, also accused was his father, Mariano, his brother, Pio. According to two witnesses, the four had conspired to assassinate Nalundasan, with Ferdinand Marcos eventually pulling the trigger, in late January 1939, they were finally denied bail and later in the year, they were convicted. Ferdinand and Lizardo received the penalty for premeditated murder, while Mariano. The Marcos family took their appeal to the Supreme Court of the Philippines, Marcos studied law at the University of the Philippines, attending the prestigious College of Law. He excelled in both curricular and extra-curricular activities, becoming a member of the universitys swimming, boxing

6. The Philippine Star – The Philippine Star is a print and digital newspaper in the Philippines and the flagship brand of the PhilStar Media Group. First published on 28 July 1986 by veteran journalists Betty Go-Belmonte, Max Soliven and Art Borjal, the newspaper is owned and published by Philstar Daily Inc. which also publishes the monthly magazine People Asia and the Sunday magazines Starweek, Gist and Lets Eat. The Philippine Star is among the Philippines most widely circulated newspapers, with a circulation of 266,000 copies daily. The Philippine Star was first published seven months after the 1986 People Power Revolution that toppled strongman Ferdinand Marcos, at that time, Belmonte was the publisher of a small, monthly magazine called The Star, a predecessor of the The Philippine Star. Belmonte served as the chairman of the Board of Directors, while Soliven acted as the founding publisher. Antonio Roces served as the first editor-in-chief until his resignation in 1989, the masthead of the newspaper carried the motto, Truth Shall Prevail, reflecting its editorial policy of presenting both sides of the story instead of the prevailing scoop mentality of that time. Aside from the news section, the first issue also includes the World, Nation, Money, Life. For its initial price of ₱1.75, the newspaper had a print run of “a few thousand copies”. At first, the newspaper was published from Mondays to Saturdays because Belmonte prohibited work on Sundays. To capitalize on Sunday readership, Philstar Daily, Inc. began publishing Starweek in 1987, eventually, in 1988, the newspaper added a Sunday issue in response to the demand for news on that day, while continuing its publication of Starweek. Aside from The Philippine Star, Philstar Daily, Inc. also started publishing a Filipino-language tabloid Ang Pilipino Ngayon, with the sudden death of Belmonte due to cancer on 28 January 1994, Soliven assumed chairmanship of the Board of Directors while retaining his position at publisher. He appointed Belmontes 30-year-old son, Miguel Belmonte, as vice president. On 4 August 1995, The Philippine Star became the first Philippine broadsheet newspaper to publish a front page. In 1998, the Board of Directors unanimously appointed Miguel Belmonte as president and CEO, while Soliven remained as chairman of the Board of Directors and publisher. The following year, the newspaper introduced “Hotline 2000”, which use of SMS as a means for opinion polling. It was the beginning of other endeavors that brought the newspaper to the Digital Age. In 2000, the newspaper debuted its website, philstar. com, in the same year, the company began using computer-to-plate printing system. In that year too, Miguels brother, Isaac Belmonte, was appointed editor-in-chief of the newspaper, a complimentary copy of the newspaper was given to Jollibee patrons nationwide for every purchase of a Jollibee breakfast meal

7. Cebu City – Cebu City, officially the City of Cebu, is the capital city of the province of Cebu in Central Visayas and is the second city of the Philippines after Manila. In the 2016 electoral roll, it had 630,003 registered voters, Cebu City is a significant center of commerce, trade and education in the Visayas. The city is located on the side of Cebu island. It is the first Spanish settlement, the countrys oldest city, and it is considered as the Fount of Christianity in the Far East. Cebu is the Philippines main domestic shipping port and is home to about 80% of the countrys shipping companies. Across Mactan Strait to the east is Mactan Island, Metro Cebu has a total population of 2,849,213 as of 2015, making it the second most-populous metropolitan area of the nation after Metro Manila in Luzon. The name Cebu came from the old Cebuano word sibu or sibo and it was originally applied to the harbors of the town of Sugbu, the ancient name for Cebu City. Sugbu, in turn, was derived from the Old Cebuano term for scorched earth or great fire, before the arrival of the Spaniards, Cebu city was part of the island-rajahnate and trade center of Pulua Kang Dayang or Kangdaya, now better known as the Rajahnate of Cebu. It was founded by a prince of the Hindu Chola dynasty of Sumatra, the name Sugbu refers to Sri Lumays scorched earth tactics against Muslim Moro raiders. On 7 April 1521, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan landed in Cebu and he was welcomed by Rajah Humabon, the grandson of Sri Lumay, together with his wife and about 700 native islanders. Magellan, however, was killed in the Battle of Mactan, the last ruler of Sugbu, prior to Spanish colonization, was Rajah Humabons nephew, Rajah Tupas. They Christianized some natives and Spanish remnants in Cebu, the Spanish arrived in Cebu on 15 April 1565. They then attempted to parley with the ruler, Rajah Tupas, but found that he. Rajah Tupas presented himself at their camp on 8 May, feast of the Apparition of Saint Michael the Archangel, the Treaty of Cebu was formalized on 3 July 1565. López de Legazpis party named the new city Villa de San Miguel de Cebú, in 1567 the Cebu garrison was reinforced with the arrival of 2,100 soldiers from New Spain. The growing colony was then fortified by Fort San Pedro, by 1569 the Spanish settlement in Cebu had become important as a safe port for ships from Mexico and as a jumping-off point for further exploration of the archipelago. Small expeditions led by Juan de Salcedo went to Mindoro and Luzon, one year later, López de Legazpi departed Cebu to discuss a peace pact with the defeated Rajahs. On 14 August 1595, Pope Clement VIII created the diocese of Cebu as a suffragan to the Archdiocese of Manila

8. The Manila Times – The Manila Times is the oldest existing English-language newspaper in the Philippines. It is published daily by The Manila Times Publishing Corp. with editorial and administrative offices at 2/F Sitio Grande Building,409 A. Soriano Avenue, Intramuros, Manila. It was founded on October 11,1898, shortly after news that the Treaty of Paris would be signed, ending the Spanish–American War, the current president and chief executive officer and executive editor is Dante Francis Klink Ang II. The Manila Times was founded by Thomas Gowan, an Englishman who had living in the Philippines. The paper was created to serve mainly the Americans who were sent to Manila to fight in the Spanish–American War, at the time, most of the newspapers in the Philippines were in Spanish and a few others were in the native languages. Shortly after the founding, reports reached Manila about the Paris Conference that would lead to the treaty ceding the Philippines to the United States from Spain. The maiden issue of The Manila Times had a sheet of two leaves, or four pages, measuring about 12 by 8 inches, each divided into two columns. The first page was taken up by announcements and advertisements, page 2 was the editorial page. It contained the editorials and the important news of the day. Page 3 was devoted to news from Europe and the United States all bearing on the Spanish–American War. On December 30,2007, The Manila Times chose Reynato Puno as Times Person of the Year, Puno defeated 2nd choices OFW, Gov. Eddie Panlilio, the Filipino Nurse, the DSWD social worker, the Pinoy Farmer, Manny Pacquiao and Joey de Venecia. Libertito Pelayo Filipino Reporter Satur Ocampo The Manila Times

9. Bhinneka Tunggal Ika – Bhinneka Tunggal Ika is the official national motto of Indonesia. The phrase is Old Javanese translated as Unity in Diversity and it is inscribed in the Indonesian national symbol, Garuda Pancasila, and is mentioned specifically in article 36A of the Constitution of Indonesia. The Garuda is a bird and the mount of Lord Vishnu. Kakawin contains epic poems written in metres and this poem is notable as it promotes tolerance between Hindus and Buddhists. The motto of Indonesia is somewhat mistaken as Indias national motto and this quotation comes from canto 139, stanza 5. The full stanza reads as follows, This translation is based, with minor adaptations, E pluribus unum Motto of the European Union

10. Flag of the Philippines – The National Flag of the Philippines is a horizontal flag bicolor with equal bands of royal blue and scarlet, and with a white, equilateral triangle at the hoist. In the center of the triangle is a sun with eight primary rays. Panay, which recent interpretations call as as representative of the entire Visayas region, a unique feature of this flag is its ability to indicate a state of war if it is displayed with the red side on top. The flags length is twice its width, giving it a ratio of 1,2. The length of all the sides of the triangle are equal to the width of the flag. Each star is oriented in such manner that one of its tips points towards the vertex at which it is located. Moreover, the gap-angle between two neighbours of the 8 ray-bundles is as large as the angle of one ray-bundle, with each ray having double the thickness of its two minor rays. The golden sun is not exactly in the center of the triangle and this flag is waved when having ceremonies The shade of blue used in the flag has varied over time, beginning with the original color lazuli Rosco. The exact nature of this shade is uncertain, but a candidate is the blue of the Cuban flag. Specifications for the colors with shades matching those used in the American flag were adopted by the National Historical Institute in 1955. For the 1998 independence centennial celebrations, the Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines was passed, the flags colors are specified by Republic Act 8491 in terms of their cable number in the system developed by the Color Association of the United States. The official colors and their approximations in other spaces are listed below. The Philippines does not utilize a separate war flag, instead, to indicate a state of war, the red field is flown upwards and is placed on the right if it is in a hanging position. In times of peace, however, the area is the superior field. The only time that the flag was not oriented in a state of war was during the Battle of Alapan in 1898,15 days before the Philippine Declaration of Independence in Kawit, Cavite. During the 2010 US-Association of Southeast Asian Nations summit in New York City, the U. S. Embassy in Manila apologized for the mistake, and the Philippines Department of Foreign Affairs accepted the apology. In the center of the triangle is an eight-rayed golden sun symbolizing unity, freedom, peoples democracy. Three five-pointed stars, one for each of the triangles points, the flags original symbolism is enumerated in the text of the independence proclamation, which makes reference to an attached drawing, though no record of the drawing has surfaced

11. Lupang Hinirang – Lupang Hinirang is the national anthem of the Philippines. Its music was composed in 1898 by Julian Felipe, and the lyrics were adapted from the Spanish poem Filipinas, under the American Period, the Flag Act of 1907 prohibited the public display of flags, banners, emblems, or devices used by revolutionaries in the Philippine–American War. Under this law, the government banned the song from being played. The Flag Law was repealed in 1919, under the Commonwealth, Commonwealth Act №382, approved on September 5,1938, officially adopted the musical arrangement and composition by Julián Felipe as the national anthem. The Spanish lyrics were translated into Tagalog beginning in the 1940s, over the years, several English versions came into use. On February 12,1998, Republic Act №8491 codified the Filipino lyrics, Lupang Hinirang began as incidental music which President Emilio Aguinaldo commissioned for use in the proclamation of Philippine independence from Spain. This task was given to Julián Felipe and was to replace a march which Aguinaldo had deemed unsatisfactory and it was played by the Banda San Francisco de Malabón during the proclamation rites on 12 June. In August 1899, the soldier and writer José Palma penned the Spanish poem Filipinas, the poem was published for the first time in the newspaper La Independencia on 3 September 1899, and was subsequently set to the tune of the Marcha Nacional Filipina. Philippine law requires that the anthem always be rendered in accordance with Felipes original musical arrangement and composition, in the 1920s, the time signature was changed to 4/4 to facilitate its singing and the key was changed from the original C major to G. After the repeal of the Flag Law in 1919, the Insular Government decided to translate the hymn from its original Spanish to English, the first translation was written around that time by the renowned poet Paz Marquez Benitez of the University of the Philippines. The most popular translation, called the Philippine Hymn, was written by Senator Camilo Osías, Tagalog translations began appearing in the 1940s, with the first known one titled Diwa ng Bayan, which was sung during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines. The second most popular one was O Sintang Lupa by Julián Cruz Balmaceda, Ildefonso Santos, and Francisco Caballo, upon the adoption of Diwa ng Bayan, the song Awit sa Paglikha ng Bagong Pilipinas and the Japanese national anthem Kimigayo were replaced. During the term of President Ramon Magsaysay, Education Secretary Gregorio Hernández formed a commission to revise the lyrics, on 26 May 1956, the Pilipino translation Lupang Hinirang was sung for the first time. Minor revisions were made in the 1960s, and it is this version by Felipe Padilla de León which is presently used, the Filipino lyrics have been confirmed by Republic Act No.8491 in 1998, abandoning use of both the Spanish and English versions. Lupang Hinirang was not the first Filipino national anthem to be conceived, the composer and revolutionist Julio Nakpil penned Marangál na Dalit ng Katagalugan, which was later called Salve Patria. It was originally intended to be the anthem of the Katipunan. The arrangement was by Julio Nakpil, who reconstructed it from memory after the score was destroyed in 1945 during the battle for Manila. It would later be reworked and incorporated in the piece, Salve

12. Patriotic Oath (Philippines) – The Patriotic Oath is one of two national pledges of the Philippines, the other being the Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag. It is commonly recited in schools during morning flag ceremony after the Lupang Hinirang is sung, recitation of the Panatà is required by law at all public and private educational institutions meant for Filipinos or containing a majority of Filipino nationals. This guideline was set in Republic Act No,1265, one of many national symbols laws, which was approved on 11 July 1955. The act was implemented in schools through Department Order No.8 of what is now the Department of Education, the Panatà was revised in November 2001 by the former Secretary of Education Raul Roco, using shorter lines in less formal Tagalog. It is the land of my birth, It is the home of my people and it protects me and helps me to be strong, happy and useful

13. Philippine Daily Inquirer – The Philippine Daily Inquirer, popularly known as the Inquirer, is the most widely read broadsheet newspaper in the Philippines, with a daily circulation of 260,000 copies. It is one of the Philippines newspapers of record and it is a member of the Asia News Network. Apostol also published the Mr & Ms Special Edition, a weekly tabloid opposed to the Marcos regime. As the successor to the previous Mr. and Mrs. Special Edition, the new daily was housed in the dilapidated one-story Star Building on 13th and Railroad streets in Port Area, Manila. It was put out by 40 editors, reporters, correspondents, photographers, columnist Louie Beltran was named its editor-in-chief. The newspaper was then in documenting the campaign of Corazón Aquino during the 1986 presidential elections and, in turn. Its slogan, Balanced News, Fearless Views, was incorporated to the newspaper in January 1986 after a slogan-making contest held during the first month of the Inquirers existence. As Belmonte owned the Star Building where the Inquirer was headquartered, in February 1987, Federico D. Pascual, former assistant managing editor of the Daily Express, was named executive editor of Inquirer and was appointed editor-in-chief two years later. It was during his term in 1990 that the Inquirer took the lead from the Manila Bulletin to become the Philippines largest newspaper in terms of circulation, however, on July 1990, the Inquirer headquarters in Intramuros was damaged by an earthquake. On 5 January 1991, the transferred to the YIC building along United Nations Avenue. Inquirers longest-serving and first woman editor-in-chief, the late Letty Jimenez-Magsanoc, was appointed on June 14,1991 and she was a former columnist and editor of the Panorama Sunday magazine of Bulletin Today who was sacked for writing articles poking fun at Marcos. She edited Mr & Ms Special Edition until the fall of the Marcos regime and she is also the first editor in chief of Sunday Inquirer Magazine. Under her term, in 1995, the Inquirer moved to its current headquarters in Makati City after transferring headquarters four times, during the administration of president Joseph Estrada, he criticized the Inquirer for bias, malice and fabrication against him—this charge to the newspaper was denied. In 1999, several government organizations, pro-Estrada businesses, and movie producers simultaneously pulled their advertisements from the Inquirer in a boycott that lasted for five months. The presidential palace was widely implicated in the boycott, which was denounced by then publisher Isagani Yambot as an attack on the freedom of the press. In 2007, according to the survey conducted by AGB Nielsen, the Manila Bulletin and the Philippine Star followed as the second and the third most widely read papers, respectively. Magsanoc died on December 24,2015 at the St. Lukes Medical Center in Taguig City, a month after her death, Jimenez-Magsanoc was recognized as the Filipino of the Year 2015 by the Inquirer. In February 2,2016, the Inquirer appointed its managing editor Jose Ma, nolasco as the executive editor, the new top position of the newspaper, replacing the traditional editor in chief position that used by Inquirer for more than three decades

14. National symbols of the Philippines – The national symbols of the Philippines consist of symbols that represent Philippine traditions and ideals and convey the principles of sovereignty and national solidarity of the Filipino people. Some of these symbols are stated in the Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines, the national language of the Philippines is Filipino as stated in the Constitution of the Philippines. There are symbols such as the carabao, mango and anahaw that are known as national symbols but have no laws recognizing them as official national symbols. Even Jose Rizal, who is considered as a national hero, has not been declared officially as a national hero in any existing Philippine law according to historical experts. Although in 2003, Benigno Aquino, Jr. was officially declared by the President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo as a hero by an executive order. Among the proposed national symbols listed in the measure are Jose Rizal as the only historical Filipino to be recognized as national hero, adobo as national food and it also includes the previous ten official national symbols. The bill is pending to become a law and once the bill turned into law. Republic Act 8491, known also as Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines, stipulates the code for national flag, anthem, motto, coat-of-arms and other heraldic items and devices of the Philippines. According to Article XIV Section 6 of the Constitution of the Philippines, in 1934, during the Commonwealth era, Governor-General Frank Murphy declared sampaguita and narra as national flower and national tree, respectively, through Proclamation No.652. Philippine President Fidel Ramos proclaimed the Philippine eagle as the bird in 1995 through Proclamation No.615. Ramos also declared the South Sea Pearl or Philippine Pearl as the gem in 1996 through Proclamation No.905. In 2009, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo declared arnis as the national sport, in February 2013, the Philippine Senate passed a bill declaring waling-waling as the national flower alongside Sampaguita. A similar bill in the House of Representatives had already passed in 2012. Normally, the bill would become law after being signed by the President, however, it was vetoed by President Benigno Aquino III. The veto did not grant the waling-waling as the national flower due to the confusion that it would create. It lists 26 symbols including the ten official national symbols. In February 2016, the House of Representatives approved on final reading the House Bill 6366, the bill is not yet a law, therefore, the symbol is not yet official. For the balangay to become a boat, there should be a senate concurrence

15. Arnis – Arnis, also known as Kali or Eskrima, is the national sport and martial art of the Philippines. It is also known as Estoque, Estocada and Garrote, in Luzon they may go by the name of Arnis de Mano. The indigenous martial art that the Spanish encountered in 1610 was not yet called Arnis at that time, kuntaw and Silat are separate martial arts that are also practiced in the Philippine Archipelago. Arnis also includes combat, joint locks, grappling and weapon disarming techniques. Although in general, emphasis is put on weapons for these arts, some systems put empty hands as the primary focus, for all intents and purposes, arnis, eskrima and kali all refer to the same family of Filipino weapon-based martial arts and fighting systems. Both Arnis and Eskrima are loans from Spanish, Arnis comes from arnés and it is said to derive from the armor costumes used in Moro-moro stage plays where actors fought mock battles using wooden swords. For, even armed with those, experience shows the difficulty of resisting the single used in this way. Eskrima is a Filipinization of the Spanish word for fencing, esgrima and their cognate in French is escrime and is related to the English term skirmish. Kali has multiple theories on its origin, One theory is that the word comes from tjakalele and this is supported by the similarities between tjakalele and eskrima techniques, as well as Mindanaos proximity to Indonesia. According to Guro Dan Inosanto, Kali is a portmanteau of the Cebuano words kamot, meaning hand, in the Ilocano language, kali means to dig and to stab. There exist numerous similar terms of reference for martial arts such as kalirongan, kaliradman and these may be the origin of the term kali or they may have evolved from it. According to Grandmaster Vic Sanchez, the Pangasinense term Kalirongan means Karunungan ng Lihim or Wisdom of Secret or Wisdom of Kali, in their book Cebuano Eskrima, Beyond the Myth however, Dr. Pedro de San Buenaventura. The term calis in various forms was present in these old Spanish documents in Ilocano, Ibanag, Kapampangan, Tagalog, Bicolano, Waray, Hiligaynon and Cebuano. As Arnis was an art practiced by the peasant or commoner class. While the same can be said of many arts, this is especially true for Arnis because almost all of its history is anecdotal, oral or promotional. It has other influences as well, as settlers and traders travelling through the Malay Archipelago brought the influence of silat as well as Chinese, Arab, some of the population still practice localized Chinese fighting methods known as kuntaw. It has also theorized that the Filipino art of Arnis may have roots in India. Silambam, a stick/staff based ancient martial art of India influenced many martial arts in Asia like Silat, as such, Arnis may share ancestry with these systems — some Arnis moves are similar to the short stick and other weapon based fighting styles of Silambam

16. Filipino language – Filipino /ˌfɪlɪˈpiːnoʊ/, in this usage, refers to the national language of the Philippines. Filipino is also designated, along with English, as a language of the country. It is the register of the Tagalog language, an Austronesian. As of 2007, Tagalog is the first language of 28 million people, or about one-third of the Philippine population, Filipino is among the 185 languages of the Philippines identified in the Ethnologue. Filipino is ideally a pluricentric language, in reality, however, Filipino has been variously described as simply Tagalog in syntax and grammar, with no grammatical element or lexicon coming from. Other major Philippine languages, and as essentially a version of Tagalog. In most contexts, Filipino is understood to be a name for Tagalog. There was no language in the Philippine archipelago when the Spanish arrived in the 16th century. The four major trade languages were Visayan, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, as the Philippine languages are all closely related and therefore easy for Filipinos to learn, most speakers of smaller languages spoke two or more of such regional languages. The first dictionary of Tagalog was written by the Franciscan Pedro de San Buenaventura, a latter book of the same name was written by Czech Jesuit missionary Paul Klein at the beginning of the 18th century. Klein spoke Tagalog and used it actively in several of his books and he wrote the first dictionary, which he later passed over to Francisco Jansens and José Hernandez. On November 13,1936, Commonwealth act No, on November 12,1937, the First National Assembly of the Philippine Commonwealth approved the law for the establishment of the Surián ng Wikang Pambansâ. This institute would be responsible for surveying and researching existing native languages in order to determine among them the basis for a national language of the Philippines. Then-president Manuel L. Quezon later appointed representatives for each major regional language to form NLI, sales Rodriguez, Hadji Butu, and Cecilio Lopez. On December 13,1937, Presisis of the new national language, Spanish was the language of the 1896 Revolution and the Katipunan, but the revolution was led by people who also spoke Tagalog. In 1959, the became known as Pilipino in an effort to dissociate it from the Tagalog ethnic group. However, neither the nor the amended version specified either Tagalog or Pilipino as the basis for Filipino. Instead they tasked the National Assembly to, take steps toward the development and this move has drawn much criticism from the nations other ethnic groups

17. Pterocarpus indicus – Other names include Narra, Sonokembang, Angsana or Sena, Tnug. Pterocarpus indicus was one of the two used as a source for the 16th to 18th-century traditional diuretic known as lignum nephriticum. Many populations of Pterocarpus indicus are seriously threatened and it is extinct in Vietnam and possibly in Sri Lanka and the Peninsular Malaysia. It is the tree of the Philippines. It is a deciduous tree growing to 30–40 m tall. The leaves are 12–22 cm long, pinnate, with 5–11 leaflets, the flowers are produced in panicles 6–13 cm long containing a few to numerous flowers, flowering is from February to May in the Philippines, Borneo and the Malay peninsula. They are slightly fragrant and have yellow or orange-yellow petals, the fruit is a semiorbicular pod 2–3 cm diameter, surrounded by a flat 4–6 cm diameter membranaceous wing which aids dispersal by the wind. It contains one or two seeds, and does not split open at maturity, it ripens within 4–6 years, the central part of the pod can be smooth, bristly or intermediate. Most Pterocarpus species prefer seasonal weather but P. indicus prefer rainforests, note, Pterocarpus macrocarpus, a similar species native to Burma, is referred to as Rosewood throughout South East Asia. P. macrocarpus, is harder than P. indicus. When in burl form both are referred to as Amboyna Burl, the hardwood, which is purplish, is termite resistant and rose-scented. The wood known in Indonesia as amboyna is the burl of the tree, named after Ambon, often amboyna is finely sliced to produce an extremely decorative veneer, used for decoration and in making of furniture and keys on a marimba. The flower is used as a source while leaf infusions are used as shampoos. Both flowers and leaves were said to be eaten, the leaves are supposedly good for waxing and polishing brass and copper. It is also a source of kino or resin, in folk medicine, it is used to combat tumors. This property might be due to an acidic polypeptide found in its leaves that inhibited growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells by disruption of cell and it was also one of the sources of lignum nephriticum, a diuretic in Europe during the 16th to 18th centuries. Its reputation is due to its wood infusions, which are fluorescent, the tree is recommended as an ornamental tree for avenues and is sometimes planted in Puerto Rico as a shade and ornament. The tall, dome-shaped crown, with long, drooping branches is very attractive and it is very easily propagated from seed or large stem cuttings, but suffers from disease problems

18. Philippine eagle – The Philippine eagle, also known as the monkey-eating eagle or great Philippine eagle, is an eagle of the family Accipitridae endemic to forests in the Philippines. It has brown and white-coloured plumage, and a shaggy crest and it is considered the largest of the extant eagles in the world in terms of length and wing surface, with the Stellers sea eagle and the harpy eagle being larger in terms of weight and bulk. Among the rarest and most powerful birds in the world, it has declared the Philippine national bird. It is critically endangered, mainly due to loss of habitat due to deforestation in most of its range. Killing a Philippine eagle is punishable under Philippine law by 12 years in prison, the first European to study the species was the English explorer and naturalist John Whitehead in 1896, who observed the bird and whose servant, Juan, collected the first specimen a few weeks later. The skin of the bird was sent to William Robert Ogilvie-Grant in London in 1896, the species name commemorates Jeffery Whitehead, the father of John Whitehead. Later studies revealed, however, that the alleged monkey-eating eagle also ate other animals, such as colugos, civets, large snakes, monitor lizards and this species has no recognized subspecies. Apart from Philippine eagle and monkey-eating eagle, it has also called the great Philippine eagle. It has numerous names in the many Philippine languages, including ágila, háribon, a study of the skeletal features in 1919 led to the suggestion that the nearest relative was the harpy eagle. The species has subsequently placed in the subfamily Circaetinae. The Philippine eagles nape is adorned with long, brown feathers that form a shaggy, the eagle has a dark face and a creamy-brown nape and crown. The back of the Philippine eagle is brown, while the underside. The heavy legs are yellow, with large, powerful claws. Juveniles are similar to adults except their upperpart feathers have pale fringes, based on the latter measurements, this makes it the longest extant species of eagle, as the average for the female equals the maximum reported for the harpy eagle and Stellers sea eagle. In many of the large eagle species, the size difference between adult females and males can exceed 20%. One male was found to weigh 4.04 kg, the Philippine eagle has a wingspan of 184 to 220 cm and a wing chord length of 57. 4–61.4 cm. The maximum reported weight is surpassed by two eagles and the wings are shorter than large eagles of open country, but are quite broad. The tarsus of the Philippine eagle ties as the longest of any eagle from 12.2 to 14.5 cm long, the very large but laterally compressed bill rivals the size of the Stellers sea eagles as the largest bill for an extant eagle

19. Pinctada maxima – Pinctada maxima is a species of pearl oyster, a marine bivalve mollusk in the family Pteriidae, the pearl oysters. There are two different color varieties, the White-lipped oyster and the Gold-lipped oyster and these bivalves are the largest pearl oysters in the world. They have a strong inner shell layer composed of nacre. They are important in the pearl industry as they are used to produce South Sea pearls. Known also as the South Sea Pearl or Philippine Pearl, it was declared by Philippine President Fidel Ramos as the gem in 1996 through Proclamation No.905. This is also featured at the side of the Philippine 1. This species occurs in Australia, Fiji, Tahiti, Indonesia, Pinctada maxima oysters grow very large, up to 12 in in diameter. The two color varieties have different coloration in the edge of the interior. This mother of pearl or nacre is responsible for the color of the pearls that the oyster can produce, water temperature, plankton and sediments determine which color variety is more common in a given area. Pinctada maxima produces South Sea pearls in colours ranging from white, silver, champagne, Pinctada margaritifera produces South Sea pearls commonly referred to as Tahitian pearls or black pearls which in fact come in colour hues including grey, platinum, charcoal, aubergine, peacock. Currently south sea pearls are cultured primarily in Australia, Indonesia, Tahiti and now, because these pearl oysters are so large, a much larger nucleus than usual can be used in culturing. Commercial pearl farming in Australia is mostly centred around the waters of Broome,17.9614 degrees South and 122.2359 degrees East. The Tahitian or black pearl comes from the pearl oyster, produced from the waters surrounding Tahiti. Media related to Pinctada maxima at Wikimedia Commons

20. Jasminum sambac – Jasminum sambac is a species of jasmine native to a small region in the eastern Himalayas in Bhutan and neighbouring India and Pakistan. It is cultivated in places, especially across much of South. Jasminum sambac is a shrub or vine growing up to 0.5 to 3 m in height. It is widely cultivated for its attractive and sweetly fragrant flowers, the flowers may be used as a fragrant ingredient in perfumes and jasmine tea. It is known as the Arabian jasmine in English and it is the national flower of the Philippines, where it is known as sampaguita, as well as being one of the three national flowers of Indonesia, where it is known as melati putih. Jasminum sambac is classified under the genus Jasminum under the tribe Jasmineae and it belongs to the olive family Oleaceae. Despite the English common name of Arabian jasmine, Jasminum sambac is not originally native to Arabia, the habits of Jasminum sambac support a native habitat of humid tropical climates and not the arid climates of the Middle East. Early Chinese records of the plant points to the origin of Jasminum sambac as eastern South Asia, Jasminum sambac were spread into Arabia and Persia by man, where they were cultivated in gardens. From there, they were introduced to Europe where they were grown as ornamentals and were known under the common name sambac in the 18th century, medieval Arabic zanbaq meant jasmine flower-oil from the flowers of any species of jasmine. The J. sambac species is a source for jasmine flower-oil in terms of the quality of the fragrance. The Jasminum officinale species is cultivated for the same purpose. In 1753, Carl Linnaeus first described the plant as Nyctanthes sambac in the first edition of his famous book Systema Naturae, in 1789, William Aiton reclassified the plant to the genus Jasminum. He also coined the common English name of Arabian jasmine, cementing the misconception that it was Arabian in origin, other common names of Jasminum sambac include, Jasminum sambac is an evergreen vine or shrub reaching up to 0.5 to 3 m tall. The species is variable, possibly a result of spontaneous mutation, natural hybridization. Cultivated Jasminum sambac generally do not bear seeds and the plant is reproduced solely by cuttings, layering, marcotting, the leaves are ovate,4 to 12.5 cm long and 2 to 7.5 cm wide. The phyllotaxy is opposite or in whorls of three, simple and they are smooth except for a few hairs at the venation on the base of the leaf. The flowers bloom all throughout the year and are produced in clusters of 3 to 12 together at the ends of branches and they are strongly scented, with a white corolla 2 to 3 cm in diameter with 5 to 9 lobes. The flowers open at night, and close in the morning, the fruit is a purple to black berry 1 cm in diameter

21. Philippine adobo – It has sometimes been considered as the unofficial national dish in the Philippines. Taken from the early Spanish, the method is indigenous to Spain. Early Spaniards cooked their food normally by roasting, steaming or boiling methods, to keep it fresh longer, food was often cooked by immersion in vinegar and salt. Thus, it is likely that Filipinos could have been cooking meat in vinegar as a means of preservation. This process dates back to the Pre-Hispanic Period and was used for pork, when the Spanish Empire colonized the Philippines in the late 16th century and early 17th century, they encountered this cooking process. It was first recorded in the dictionary Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala compiled by the Spanish Franciscan missionary Pedro de San Buenaventura and he referred to it as adobo de los naturales. Dishes prepared in this manner came to be known by this name. While the Philippine adobo can be considered adobo in the Spanish sense—a marinated dish—the Philippine usage is more specific to a cooking process and is not restricted to meat. Typically, pork or chicken, or a combination of both, is cooked in vinegar, crushed garlic, bay leaves, black peppercorns. It is served with white rice and it was traditionally cooked in small clay pots, but in modern times, metal pots or woks are used instead. There are numerous variants of the recipe in the Philippines. The most basic ingredient of adobo is vinegar, which is usually vinegar, rice vinegar. Almost every ingredient can be changed according to personal preference, even people in the same household can cook adobo in significantly different ways. A rarer version without soy sauce is known as adobong puti, which uses salt instead, to contrast it with adobong itim, adobong puti is often regarded as the closest to the original version of the Pre-Hispanic adobo. It is similar to another known as pinatisan, where fish sauce is used instead of vinegar. The proportion of ingredients like soy sauce, bay leaves, garlic, other ingredients can sometimes be used, like siling labuyo, birds eye chili, jalapeño pepper, red bell pepper, olive oil, onions, brown sugar, potatoes, or pineapple. It may also be further browned in the oven, pan-fried, deep-fried, in southern Luzon and Muslim Zamboanga, for example, it is common to see adobo cooked with coconut milk. In Cavite, mashed pork liver is added, in Laguna, turmeric is added, giving the dish a distinct yellowish color

22. Saribus rotundifolius – Saribus rotundifolius, round-leaf fountain palm, is a palm found in Southeast Asia. It is a member of the genus Saribus and it is also called footstool palm and as Anáhaw or Luyong. The foliage of the Saribus rotundifolius is the unofficial national leaf of the Philippines and it is a common landscaping plant in the region. It can grow in climates and humid, tropical areas. The leaves are used for thatching and food wrapping, overharvesting of leaves of wild plants have reduced leaf size. The leaves do grow faster after harvest but tend to be smaller, in September 2011, after DNA research the reclassification from the genus Livistona to the resurrected genus Saribus was official

23. Bakya – The Bakyâ or wooden clogs were once the most commonly used footwear in the Philippines before the introduction of rubber sandals. This footwear is made from light wood like santol and laniti. It is cut to the foot size before being shaven until smooth. The side of the bakyâ is thick enough to be carved with floral, afterwards, the bakyâ could then be painted or varnished. Uppers of plastic or rubber will then be fastened using clavitos, the bakyâ was very popular in the 1950s and was a common souvenir for Americans visiting the country. However, the industry dwindled with the introduction of rubber slippers. Today it is used although it is a common footwear used during cultural presentations. The word bakyâ may also be used in the Philippines to denote something that is of low-class, PAETE LAGUNA, PAETENIANS HOME ON THE NET

24. Balangay – The Balangay is a plank boat adjoined by a carved-out plank edged through pins and dowels. It was first mentioned in the 16th Century in the Chronicles of Pigafetta, the balangay was the first wooden watercraft excavated in Southeast Asia and is evidence of early Filipino craftsmanship and their seamanship skills during pre-colonial times. The Balanghai Festival is also a celebration in Butuan, Agusan del Norte to commemorate the coming of the early migrants settled the Philippines. When the first Spaniards arrived in the 16th century, they found the Filipinos living in well-organized independent villages called barangays, the name barangay originated from balangay, the Austronesian word for sailboat. Barangay, or Balangay, was one of the first native words the Spaniards learned in the Philippines, when Antonio Pigafetta went ashore to parley with the ruler of Limasawa, they sat together in a boat drawn up on shore which Pigafetta called a balangai. On the other hand, when the Spaniards reached Luzon, they found this word for boat also being used for the smallest political unit of Tagalog society and this article is restricted on the terms Balangay or Barangay referring to the boat only and not the ‘barangay’ as community. As in Northern Luzon particularly in the province of Cagayan, balangay is used as a medium in getting food for the Ibanags. The Cagayan river system and the Babuyan Channel provided the Ibanags with fish as well as avenues of trade as far as Ilocos coast, the common word for boat was barangay, a term sometimes extended to the crew. Large vessels were called Biray or Biwong, the Visayans had a different way of using balangay compared to that of the people of Northern Luzon. Large ones were used for carrying cargo and were called bidok, biroko, biray, with the balangay’s size, it was used for cargo and raiding purposes giving proof that Butuan played a central role in trade throughout the region of the Philippine islands and with neighboring area. Today, Balanghai Festival is a celebration in Butuan, Agusan del Norte, it is to commemorate the coming of the early migrants settled in the Philippines. It is also held that the balangay also helped spread the settlement of the Austronesian people around the Philippines and neighboring regions of Maritime Southeast Asia, the Tao people of Taiwan have traditionally been adept at crafting balangays, which are held as a symbol of their people. The balangay was the first wooden watercraft excavated in Southeast Asia, the well known barangay was an edge-pegged, plank-built boat constructed on a keel. The balangay was basically a plank boat put together by joining the carved out planks edge to edge, rib like structures made of lengths of wood were then lashed against these lugs to provide a flexible bulkhead, to reinforce and literally sew the boat together. Cordage known as cabo negro was used for the purpose, the hull, measuring about 15 meters long and 4 meters wide, was ordinarily semicircular in cross section and with no marked keel. Provided with huge outriggers, the boat was propelled either by a sail or by paddling, since the 10th century, Butuan appeared to have been in good relations with the Srivijaya. Various goods, extending to the statue of Avalokiteśvara and the Golden Tara of Butuan, were traded across Maritime Southeast Asia, the balangay boats were discovered in the late 1970s in Butuan City, Agusan del Norte. A total of nine boats were accidentally found by locals searching for alluvial gold on land near the Masao River

25. Barong Tagalog – The Barong Tagalog, more commonly known as simply Barong, is an embroidered formal shirt which is considered the national dress of the Philippines. It is lightweight and worn untucked over an undershirt, today, in lowland Christian Filipino culture it is common formal attire, especially at weddings. Less formal variants are used also as uniform in schools, universities and offices, through the years, it has occasionally been feminized and worn by women. The Barong Tagalog was popularised as formal wear by President Ramón Magsaysay, the term Barong Tagalog is usually shortened in modern Filipino as Barong, though grammatically, barong is not a word that can stand alone. It contains the suffix -ng, which indicates that it is an adjective or an adjective must directly follow, the root word of barong is the Tagalog word baro meaning outfit or clothing. Barong Tagalog literally means Tagalog outfit, the term was originally used to describe what people, both men and women, typically wore in the Tagalog region during the Spanish era. In time, the term caught on for the shirt alone, prior to the Spanish Era, the Tagalogs of Luzon already wore a garment that was a forerunner of the Barong Tagalog - the Baro. Earliest reference to the Baro was in the Historical account of Ma-i that the Filipinos wore a sleeve-doublet of rough cotton cloth called kanga and it was collarless and had an opening in front. The doublets indicated the status and badge of courage of a man, red was for the Chiefs. This is only a legend, as pre-Hispanic Filipinos already wore untucked shirts, something common in climates where temperatures. Historians have likewise noted the absence of citations to any law in which that bans the tucking in their shirts. They also note that natives during the era wore their shirts tucked at times. A common example cited in support of this argument is José Rizal and his contemporaries, like other cultural clothes, the style of the Barong Tagalog and the accessories worn with it spoke of the status of the person wearing it. The Mestizos would wear it with their shoes and bowler hat. The Ilustrados wore abaca-made Baro with plain collar, half open chest, the Ilustrados wore it with ordinary shoes, trousers and a hat - similar to that of Mestizos. The Baro was worn over a Camisa de Chino, the lower class wore coloured Camisa de Chino with loose pants and slippers which is still a practice in the countryside. The finest shirts are made from a variety of indigenous fabrics and they have a sheer appearance and the best are custom embroidered in delicate folk patterns, Piña fabric is hand-loomed from pineapple leaf fibers. Traditional piña weavers in the country, however, are dwindling, making the delicate piña cloth expensive and they are used only for very formal events

26. Bayan Ko – Bayan Ko is one of the most recognizable patriotic songs of the Philippines. It was originally penned in Spanish by the Revolutionary general José Alejandrino, the song, which is a kundiman, is often considered the unofficial second national anthem of the Philippines, and is sometimes sung by Overseas Filipino groups after the Lupang Hinirang or by itself. The Spanish lyrics of Bayan Ko were originally written for the Severino Reyes zarzuela, attributed to the propagandista, General José Alejandrino, the song expressed opposition to the ongoing American Occupation. The current and more popular Tagalog version is attributed to José Corazón de Jesús, Bayan Ko regained cult popularity during the Marcos dictatorship, with the Left singing their own version in protests. After President Marcos imposed Martial Law in 1972, the song was deemed seditious, public performances of the song were banned, with violators facing potential arrest and detention. People were emboldened to sing it at the 1983 funeral of Senator Benigno Aquino, Jr. and the ensuing 1986 People Power Revolution, where Freddie Aguilar led crowds in singing. Since the 1986 Revolution that toppled the Marcos government and ushered in the Fifth Republic, on 1 August 2009, Bayan Ko was sung as the recessional of the noon Mass at EDSA Shrine, ending the quarantore for Corazón Aquino. The service, originally intended to pray for the former leaders recovery, was instead done to mourn her sudden death early that morning, crowds sang it again during the transfer of her remains from La Salle Green Hills to Manila Cathedral on 3 August for the lying-in-state. At the Requiem Mass on 5 August, Lea Salonga sang it as the recessional while Aquinos casket was borne out to the Cathedral steps, a military band repeated it as the flatbed hearse carrying the casket and honour guard began the hours-long funeral procession. Mourners sang Bayan Ko for the last time with several hymns as Aquinos casket was entombed beside her husband at the mausoleum in Parañaque City. A month later, Libera sang Bayan Ko as an encore to their first Philippine tour in Cebu, moved by the performance, the audience sporadically applauded throughout the groups performance. As part of their Summer Philippine tour the year, Libera gave an encore performance on the hit noontime variety programme, Showtime on 14 April 2010. The Philippine Madrigal Singers sang Bayan Ko during the inauguration of President Benigno Aquino III, the modern Filipino lyrics based on the original Tagalog omit all diacritics and contract kaniyang to kanyang. Pag-ibig nasa kanyang palad, // Nag-alay ng ganda’t dilag as sung by Freddie Aguilar, may be rendered as With love, as per her fate, she offered up her beauty and splendor. Pag-ibig ko sa kanyang palad // nag-alay ng ganda’t dilag as sung by Asin and others, may be rendered as My love, as per her fate, offered up beauty and splendor to her. Asin also replaces makita kang sakdal laya to see you absolutely free with makita kang malaya to see you free, while largely unchanged from the De Guzmán arrangement, the song has renditions by different composers and singers, notably by Lucio San Pedro, Asin, and Freddie Aguilar. Aguilars cover is one of the most famous renditions of the song, asins rendition included another de Jesús work, Kay Sarap Mabuhay Sa Sariling Bayan, as a preluding stanza to the main lyrics. Sung mostly by Leftist groups, the stanza is included as the bridge replacing Pilipinas Kong Mahal with the prelude of Ang Bayan kong Hirang, allison Opaon sang a Japanese version in Yokohama on 18 November 2006, during a concert-rally against political killings in the Philippines

27. Carabao – The carabao is a swamp-type domestic water buffalo native to the Philippines. Water buffaloes were probably introduced to the Philippines by Malay immigrants around 300 to 200 BCE and it is considered the national animal of the Philippines. The word carabao is from Spanish, derived from Visayan karabàw, cognates include Tagalog kalabáw, Javanese kebo, Malay kerbau, and Indonesian Dutch karbouw. The ultimate origin of the word is an unidentified Austroasiatic language via Malay, the female is called a caraballa. The Minangkabau people of Indonesia take their name from the cognate in their Malayic language, carabaos have the low, wide, and heavy build of draught animals. They vary in colour from grey to slate grey. The horns are sickle-shaped or curve backward toward the neck, albinoids are present in the proportion of about 3% of the buffalo population. Mature male carabaos weigh 420–500 kg, and females 400–425 kg, height at withers of the male ranges from 127–137 cm, and of the female from 124–129 cm. Water buffaloes imported to the Philippines from Cambodia in the early 20th century are called Cambodian carabaos and they have white or yellowish hair on a pinkish skin, but the eyes, hooves, and mouth are dark, and the skin may be speckled. They are slightly bigger and have larger horns, males weigh on average 673 kg and measure 141 cm at the withers. Water buffaloes are well adapted to a hot and humid climate, Water availability is of high importance in hot climates since they need wallows, rivers, or splashing water to reduce the heat load and thermal stress. Swamp buffaloes prefer to wallow in a mudhole that they make with the horns and their objective is to acquire a thick coating of mud. They thrive on many plants and in time of flood will graze submerged, raising their heads above the water. They eat reeds, the giant reed, bulrush, sedges, the water hyacinth. Green fodders are used widely for milk production and for fattening. Many fodder crops are conserved as hay, chaffed, or pulped, trials in the Philippines showed that the carabao, on poor-quality roughage, had a better feed conversion rate than cattle. The carabao cools itself by lying in a waterhole or mud during the heat of the day, mud, caked on to its body, also protects it from bothersome insects. The carabao feeds mainly in the cool of the mornings and evenings and its lifespan is 18 to 20 years and the female carabao can deliver one calf each year

28. Jeepney – Jeepneys, sometimes called simply jeeps, are the most popular means of public transportation in the Philippines. They are known for their crowded seating and kitsch decorations, which have become a symbol of Philippine culture. A Sarao jeepney was exhibited at the Philippine pavilion at the 1964 New York Worlds Fair as an image for the Filipinos. Jeepneys were originally made from U. S. military jeeps left over from World War II, most jeepneys are used as public utility vehicles. Some are used as personal vehicles, Jeepneys are used less often for commercial or institutional use. When American troops began to leave the Philippines at the end of World War II, an American soldier named Harry Stonehill was involved in the disposal of military surplus, and reportedly created a black market for the surplus including jeeps. The Jeeps were stripped down and altered locally, metal roofs were added for shade, the back saloon was reconfigured with two long parallel benches with passengers facing each other to accommodate more passengers. The size, length and passenger capacity has increased as it evolved through the years and these were classified as passenger-type jeeps. The non-extended, original-seat configuration jeeps were labeled owners, short for owner-type jeeps, the original Jeepneys were refurbished military Jeeps by Willys and Ford. Modern jeepneys are now produced with engines and other parts coming from Japan. The jeepney rapidly emerged as a popular and creative way to re-establish inexpensive public transportation, recognizing the widespread use of these vehicles, the Philippine government began to regulate their use. Drivers now must have specialized drivers licenses, routes are regulated and prices are fixed fares. Illegal operators are referred to as colorum operations, from the colour of the vehicle plate. Recently, the industry has faced threats to its survival. Most of the builders have gone bankrupt or have switched to manufacturing other products. Passenger jeepneys are also facing increasing restrictions and regulations for pollution control, a recent study published in a Metro Manila newspaper compared the fuel use of a 16-passenger jeepney to a 54-passenger air-conditioned bus and found that the fuel consumption for both was the same. The planned construction of bus transit systems in Manila and Cebu might lead to the removal of jeepneys. In 2016, the Department of Transportation and Communications imposed an age limit on jeepneys of 15 years of age, many jeepney operators oppose the phase-out, and George San Mateo, leader of the No to Jeepney Phaseout Coalition, called the modernization program corrupt

29. Juan de la Cruz – Juan dela Cruz is the national personification of the Philippines, often used to represent the Filipino everyman. He is usually depicted wearing the native salakot hat, Barong Tagalog, long pants, Juan dela Cruz was coined by Robert McCulloch-Dick, the editor and publisher of The Philippine Free Press in 1900s. He noticed the frequency with which the names appeared on police blotters and he was also notified that the Catholic Church baptized a massive number of children named after popular saints. He often wrote verses about Juan dela Cruz in The Philippines’ Free Press who was often depicted narrating the petty crimes committed by them. Later on, McCulloch-Dick widened his idea of Juan until he made Juan dela Cruz as a typical Filipino, Juan dela Cruz is associated with the image of a naïve-looking man wearing a salakot, camisa de chino, native trousers and slippers. Jorge Pineda, a resident cartoonist of The Philippines’ Free Press, activists often portray Juan dela Cruz as a victim of American imperialism, especially since many editorial cartoons of the American period often depicted him alongside Uncle Sam. In modern times, he is shown independently as a venue for the common Filipinos commentary on governmental and social issues, the term, sometimes shortened to Juan, also refers to the collective Filipino psyche. The name is used as a placeholder name for an anonymous individual. Juan Tamad, or Lazy John — another character common in Filipino culture and literature, maría Clara, from the novel Noli Me Tángere by national hero José Rizal, refers to the idealised Filipina

30. Mango

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