MLA style is published by the Modern Language Association. It is commonly used in humanities and English courses.
Generally, MLA 7 citations follow the following format:
Contributor. Title. Secondary Contributors. Publication Information. Medium.
Contributor Information and Titles
The main contributors to the source, normally the author, are placed before the title. If there is more than one author, then arrange the authors in the same order found in the source. Reverse only the name of the first author, and follow the rest in normal form.
Smith, John K. Title.
Smith, John K., and Tim Sampson. Title.
Smith, John K., Tim Sampson, and Alex J. Hubbard. Title.
Four or more authors:
Smith, John K., et al. Title.
Sometimes the main contributor is not an author, but another contributor type, such as an editor for a book or conductor for a musical piece. In this instance, follow the contributor by an abbreviation of the contributor type (i.e. ed. or cond.). If plural, then change the abbreviation accordingly.
Smith, John K., ed. Title.
Smith, John K., and Tim Sampson, eds. Title.
Smith, John K., cond. Title.
Many sources have secondary contributors – individuals who added to the work outside the main contributors. This can include editors and translators for books and producers and screenplay writers for movies. Place secondary contributors after the title. Precede the name of the contributors with the abbreviation for the contributor type. For instance, “Ed.” means “Edited by.”
Smith, John. Title. Ed. Bill McCoy.
Smith, John. Title. Ed. Bill McCoy and Tim Thomas.
One conductor and three producers:
Smith, John. Title. Cond. Bill McCoy. Prod. Tim Thomas, Jane Horton, and Rex Bryant.
You may decide to emphasize the work, for example, when citing a live performance. In this instance, place all the contributors after the title. Authors and writers are preceded by the word “By.”
One author and editor:
Title. By John Smith. Ed. Bill McCoy.
Some sources may have corporate or group authors. Write these organization where you would write the authors. If they are also publishers of the source, include it in the publication information as well.
Modern Language Association. Title.
Illinois Dept. of Industrial Relations. Title.
Some sources are found within other sources, such as a chapter in a book, or an article in a periodical. These rules apply both to the contributors of the chapter and book, or to the article.
Chapter author and editor and two book compilers:
Smith, John. “Chapter.” Ed. Bill McCoy. Title. Comp. Russell Engels and Steve Simpson.
Author and translator of an article:
Smith, John. “Chapter.” Trans. Bill McCoy. Periodical Title.
Generally, capitalize all principal words as well as the first word and last word in the title. If citing a title for an entire source, such as a book or periodical title, place in italics. If citing an article, essay, poem or short story within a larger work, place in quotes. If a novel or published independently, then place in italics.
After the title and contributor information comes the publication information. In MLA7, you must also list the publication medium (Print, Web) after the publication information. MLA 7 abbreviates all months except for May, June and July. Below are different publication information templates.
Last, First M. Title. City: Publisher, Year Published. Medium.
Last, First M. “Article.” Title Series Volume.Issue (Year Published): Page(s). Medium.
Last, First M. “Article.” Title Date Month Year Published: Page(s). Medium.
Last, First M. “Article.” Title [City] Date Month Year Published, Edition, Section: Page(s). Medium.
If you cannot find all publication information, use placeholders “N.p., n.p., n.d.” which represents no place, no publisher, and no date. If there are no page numbers use “N.pag.” Capitalize the abbreviations appropriately based on where they are placed.
*Note: We format according to MLA7, we believe adding such placeholders is unnecessary, as it provides no information, and the lack of information can be assumed by its absence in the citation.
For less conventional source types, you can add descriptions about the source after the title. For example, you can add “Cartoon.” or “Map.” after the title of a cartoon or map to clarify to the reader what type of source you are citing.
When citing non-periodical sources, advanced information such as the edition and section come before the publication information. Series information comes after the medium description.
See the fictional example below:
Smith, John. Power. Ed. Tom Riley. 5th ed. Vol 12. New York: Random, 2002. Print. Ser. 50.
Why we use parenthetical / in-text citations
Researchers place brief parenthetical descriptions to acknowledge which parts of their paper reference particular sources. Generally, you want to provide the last name of the author and the specific page numbers of the source. If such information is already given in the body of the sentence, then exclude it from the parenthetical citation.
Place the parenthetical citation where there is a pause in the sentence – normally before the end of a sentence or a comma. The in-text citation will differ depending on how much information you provide within the sentence.
Example with author’s name in text:
Johnson argues this point (12-13).
This point had already been argued (Johnson 12-13).
Citing sources with more than one author
If you use sources with the same author surnames, then include a first name initial. If the two sources have authors with the same initials, then include their full names:[su_spacer]
(J. Johnson 12-13).
(John Johnson 12-13).
If there are two or three authors of the source, include their last names in the order they appear on the source:
(Smith, Wollensky, and Johnson 45).
If there are more than three authors, you can cite all the authors with their last name, or you can cite the first author followed by “et al.” Follow what is shown the works cited list.
(Smith et al. 45).
Citing sources without an author
Some sources do not have authors or contributors – for instance, when you cite some websites. Instead, refer to the name of the source in your parenthetical citation in place of the author. Shorten / abbreviate the name of the source but ensure that your reader can easily identify it in your works cited (abbreviate the title starting with the same word in which it is alphabetized). Punctuate with quotations or italicize as you would in its works cited form (a book is italicized; an article is in quotes).
Double agents are still widely in use (Spies 12-15, 17).
With prices of energy at new highs, bikes have been increasingly used (“Alternative Transportation” 89).
Citing part of a work
When citing a specific part of a work, provide the relevant page or section identifier. This can include specific pages, sections, paragraphs or volumes. When the identifier is preceded by an abbreviation or word, place a comma between the identifier and the source reference.
Part of a multivolume work
It is arguably the most innovative period in history (Webster, vol 4).
Chapter within a book (if no specific numbers can be referenced)
The electoral college undermines democracy (Sanders, “Government Injustices”).
Article in a periodical
Allen claims there is an inverse correlation between higher taxes and patriotic feelings worldwide (B2).
When citing a specific page(s) of a multivolume work, precede the page number by the volume number and a colon. Do not separate by a comma.
It was arguably the most innovative period in history (Webster 4:12-15).
Use “par.” or “pars.” when referring to specific paragraphs.
The marketing dollars of big studio films has overshadowed good indie movies (Anderson, pars. 12-34).
Citing group or corporate authors
In your parenthetical citation, cite a corporate author like you would a normal author. Preferably, incorporate the corporate author in your text instead of the parenthetical citation.
Facial transplants pose significant risk to the autoimmune system (American Medical Association 12-43).
As noted by the American Medical Association, facial transplants pose significant risk to the autoimmune system (12-43).
Citing an entire source
When citing an entire work, there are no specific page numbers to refer to. Therefore it is preferable to refer to the source within the text itself with either the author or the title of the source.
Hartford suggests the Internet provides more distractions than it does information.
Citing multiple works by the same author
If you reference more than one source by the same author, distinguish the parenthetical citations by including the name of the source. Use a comma to separate the author from the source.
Wars can be economic catalysts (Friedman, World 77-80).
Industrialized nations are better equipped to rebound from recessions (Friedman, “High Tides” 56).
Citing indirect sources
When an original source is unavailable, then cite the secondhand source – for instance, a lecture in a conference proceedings. When quoting or paraphrasing a quote, write “qtd. in” before the author and pages.
John Murray calls Tim Smith “interesting but egotistical” (qtd. in Jesrani 34).
Citing literary / classic and religious works
For works such as novels, plays and other classic works, it’s helpful to provide further identifying information along with the page information. Do this by adding a semicolon and then the identifying information following the page number.
(Tolstoy 5; pt. 2, ch. 3).
When citing classic poems and plays, replace page numbers with division numbers (part, book, scene, act). The below refers to book 10 line 5. Bear in mind the divisions and the way they are written can vary by source.
Fear plays a role in Homer’s Odyssey (10.5).
The title of books in the Bible and other famous literary works should be abbreviated.
(New Jerusalem Bible, Gen. 2.6-9).
Placing parenthetical citations in direct quotations
When directly quoting a source, place the parenthetical citation after the quote.
Sanders explains that economic woes are due to “the mortgage crisis and poor risk assessment” (20).
Place the parenthetical citation at the end of an indented quotation. There should be no period after the parenthetical citation. The last sentence of the indented quote should look like:
It’s unclear whether multilateral tariffs are disruptive to bilateral talks. (Evert 30-31)
Citing online sources
Generally, follow the same principals of parenthetical citations to cite online sources. Refer to the author, and if possible, a permanent identifier that would be the same for any reader.
The economy will rebound with the new monetary policies (Smith).
Solar power will become the primary source of energy (Williams 2).
Citing online sources with no author
If there is no author, use the title that begins the citation, either the article or website title. Be sure it also takes the same formatting, i.e. articles are in quotes and website titles are italicized. Shorten / abbreviate the name of the source but ensure that your reader can easily identify it in your works cited (abbreviate the title starting with the same word in which it is alphabetized).
Elephants are thought to be one of the smartest mammals (“Smart Elephants”).
Nineteen men and women were convicted (Salem Witchcraft Trials).
Note: Ideally, when citing online sources, try to reference the source within your sentence, with either the author or the title to avoid writing a parenthetical citation.
Where to put the parenthetical citations:
- Place parenthetical citations at the end of the sentence you are paraphrasing and quoting. For example: The destruction of the argentine is due to many socioeconomic factors (Taylor 33).
- Even when quoting, place the parenthetical citations after the quotations.
“Mamma always said stupid is as stupid does” (Gump 89).
When quoting four lines or more, indent every line you are quoting by one inch (or 10 spaces) and do not use quotes.
The use of nuclear weapons in today’s society is strikingly alarming. Though the United States is the only country to employ it in the past, they are at the same time the country that condemns its use the most. While this may seem hypocritical, is it the most proper action for the United States to make as the global leader. (Taparia 9)