Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Critical Thinking"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to Critical Thinking
Concepts and Strategies
2 3 Key QuestionsWhy do we need critical thinking? What is critical thinking? How do we design instruction to foster critical thought?
3 Why do we need critical thinking?
Critical thinking isn’t natural.Walking vs. BalletJust rational enough
4 Diagnosis BiasTendency to ignore evidence or make it fit our preconceived preference or conclusion.EMT and Alaskan nativesHow Doctor’s Think the 7 min. diagnosisPerformance Labels (SWAY)When we read! (The House)
5 Belief PreservationTendency to make evidence subservient to belief. “Tendency to use evidence to preserve our opinions rather than guide them.” (Van Gelder)
6 Belief PreservationFrancis Bacon – humans tend to see things through an “enchanted glass, full of superstition and imposture” rather than through a clear, transparent glass.Intrinsic tendency toward illusion, distortion and error.“Invisibly corrupts our thinking and contaminates our beliefs” (Van Gelder)
7 3 tendenciesSeek evidence that supports our existing belief and ignore contradicting evidence.Rate evidence as good or bad depending on whether or not it supports or conflicts with our belief. (egocentric standards)We stick to our beliefs despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary.
8 “Standards” Typically Used in Thinking
“It’s true because I believe it” (innate egocentrism)“It’s true because we believe it”(innate sociocentrism)“It’s true because I want to believe it” (innate wish fulfillment)“It’s true because I have always believed it.”(innate self-validation)“It’s true because it is in my selfish interest to believe it.” (innate selfishness)Typical Standards Two
9 More Non-intellectual “Standards”
It’s true because someone in a position of perceived power (or authority) said it is true.It’s true because it’s beyond my (our) ability to fully understand it. (lacking confidence in reason)
10 Non-Critical Thinking Standards
FunExcitingFeels goodAttention-gettingPopularPatrioticFreeChicSpontaneousAdvantageousEasyBeneficial to meDeeply moving/felt
11 Just as a skilled archer must adjust her aim for a breeze, so too does a critical thinker seek to be aware of his/her biases, blind spots, and assumptions.
12 Critical Thinking Why is it Important? What is It?
How Does it Improve Teaching and Learning?Question the assumption in question 2: Partners-pro and con/switch
13 What is Critical Thinking?
To be clear in writing:1) state2) elaborate (In other words…)3) exemplify and/or illustrateWrite your understanding of critical thinking, in this form:1) Critical thinking is …..2) In other words…3) For example …(1) Ballet example; (2) Discuss, write SEEI, Assess
14 is a self-directed process highest level of quality.
Critical Thinkingis a self-directed processby which we takedeliberate stepsto think at thehighest level of quality.
15 critical thinking: disciplined, self-guided thinking
Overview slideThinking thatassesses thinkingThinking thatanalyzes thinkingcritical thinking: disciplined,self-guided thinkingaimed at living a rational life.thinking thatcombatsits nativeegocentricityThinking thatdevelops within itselfintellectual habits
16 Critical Reading Strategy
Work in pairs. Person A, Person B. Critically read the following slide together, using the following method:a. Person B reads one sentence aloud, then states in his/her own words what has been read. In other words, person B interprets the sentence.b. Person A then either agrees with the interpretation or offers a different interpretation, adds to the interpretation, etc.c. Rotate roles after each sentence. Move down page.d. During this process, do not critique what you are reading, merely interpret.
17 Why Critical Thinking? The Problem: Everyone thinks; it is our nature to do so. But much of our thinking, left to itself, is biased, distorted, partial, uninformed or down-right prejudiced. Yet the quality of our life and that of what we produce, make, or build depends precisely on the quality of our thought. Shoddy thinking is costly, both in money and in quality of life. Excellence in thought, however, must be systematically cultivated. A Definition: Critical thinking is the art of analyzing and evaluating thinking with a view to improving it.
18 A well cultivated critical thinker:
raises vital questions and problems, formulating them clearly and precisely;gathers and assesses relevant information, using abstract ideas to interpret it effectively;comes to well-reasoned conclusions and solutions, testing them against relevant criteria and standards;thinks open-mindedly within alternative systems of thought, recognizing and assessing, as need be, their assumptions, implications, and practical consequences;and communicates effectively with others in figuring out solutions to complex problems.
19 3 Key QuestionsWhy do we need critical thinking? What is critical thinking? How do we design instruction to foster critical thought?
21 Booth Tarkington, author
“He had learned how to pass examinations by ‘cramming’; that is, in three or four days and nights he could get into his head enough of a selected fragment of some scientific or philosophical or literary or linguistic subject to reply plausibly to six questions out of ten. He could retain the information necessary for such a feat just long enough to give a successful performance; then it would evaporate utterly from his brain, and leave him undisturbed.”On what George Amberson had learned in college, from the Magnificant Ambersons (1918)}
22 Circle – Dots
23 Typical student beliefs.
Learning should be fun.Learning should be easy.If I do what the teacher says, that’s all that matters.Learning means doing what the teacher says.All I need to do is the absolute minimum to get an A.I shouldn’t have to waste my time learning anything I can’t use.I believe that learning biology is a waste of my time.Cheating to get by is fine because all I need is the piece of paper (the degree/diploma) to get a job anyway.
24 Three Types of “Knowledge”
Inert InformationActivated IgnoranceActivated KnowledgePerkins Study: Engaged lecture
25 Poincare“Science is built of facts the way a house is built of bricks, but an accumulation of facts is no more science than a pile of bricks is a house!”
26 Content is: Understood by thinking Constructed by thinking
Modified by thinkingApplied by thinkingQuestioned by thinkingAssessed by thinking
27 Therefore, to learn content
students have to think it into their thinking using their thinking.
28 Critical thinking provides the tools students need to think through content.
Critical thinking is a system of thinking that opens up all other systems of thinking.
29 Critical thinking is the way you do everything you do
30 The critical thinking mind is the educated mind
The Critical Thinking Mind = The Educated Mind
CLARITY1. State: give a brief explanation2. Elaborate: expand on your explanation3. Exemplify: give a concrete example4. Illustrate: use metaphor, analogy, pictureStateElaborateExemplify
33 SEEISTATE in your own words what someone else has said or written or the key concept, problem or question at issue.ELABORATE on your statement. In other words…EXEMPLIFY: give an example of the concept from your life and from the content.ILLUSTRATE: create an analogy, metaphor, simile, graph, chart, cartoon, etc.
34 Original Bloom’s Taxonomy
35 Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy
36 Bloom’s Re-conceptualized
RememberUnderstandApplyAnalyzeEvaluateCreateIllustration Based on St. Edward’s University, Center for Teaching Excellence, 2001
37 Comparing Approaches Teacher-directed Student-centered
Traditional mode of instruction in the USAStudent-centeredStudents are engaged in the process of actively figuring something out / reasoning through a significant problem.
38 Teacher-directed (confusing)
There are 12 Christmas trees and five are cut down. How many are left standing?What intellectual moves does this assignment initiate?What intellectual skills are targeted?
39 Teacher-directed (clearer)
There are 12 Christmas trees standing. Of those, five are cut down. How many are left standing?What intellectual moves does this assignment initiate?What intellectual skills are targeted?
40 Student-centeredSusan says that if there are 12 Christmas trees standing and of those five are cut down, then seven are left standing. But George says that is incorrect.Who is correct and why?How did you arrive at your answer?Jim Braly, The Oregonian, Jan. 11, 2009
41 Philosophy Example 2Possible Traditional Assignment “As a group, discuss your reaction to Plato’s Crito.”
42 Philosophy Example 2 cont’d
An assignment that fosters critical thought may ask instead:“In a group of three, propose a list of significant questions you would like to have the teacher address or the class discuss regarding Plato’s Crito. Your initial list (which you will hand in to the instructor) should include a dozen or so questions…. (next slide)
43 Then reach consensus on what you consider your three best questions
Then reach consensus on what you consider your three best questions. Your recorder will write these questions on the board and will explain to the class why your group considers them pertinent, interesting, and significant questions raised by Crito. Time: 15 minutes.”Source: Bean, p. 152
44 Eight Questions Students Can Ask to Figure out the Logic of a Subject or Discipline:
What is the main purpose of the subject?What are the key issues, problems, and questions addressed within the subject?What kinds of information are pursued within the discipline?What types of inferences or judgments are made?What key concepts inform the discipline?What key assumptions underlie the discipline?What are some important implications of studying the discipline?What points of view are fostered within the discipline?
45 To what extent do you see any of the following acting as obstacles to substantive learning in your context?Intellectual arroganceIntellectual conformityIntellectual lazinessIntellectual hypocrisyCompetitionLittle confidence in reasoning
46 How do you help students learn the skills needed to form clear, probing questions?
47 Instructional Strategies
What did we do today?
48 SEEISTATE in your own words what someone else has said or written or the key concept, problem or question at issue.ELABORATE on your statement. In other words…EXEMPLIFY: give an example of the concept from your life and from the content.ILLUSTRATE: create an analogy, metaphor, simile, graph, chart, cartoon, etc.
49 Critical Reading (1) Work in pairs.
a. Person B reads one sentence aloud, then states in his/her own words what has been read. In other words, person B interprets the sentence.b. Person A then either agrees with the interpretation or offers a different interpretation, adds to the interpretation, etc.c. Do not critique, merely interpret.d. Switch roles and move on to next sentence.
50 Role Play (2)PartnersPurpose: Address two differing interpretations to an issue or problem.‘A’ takes a pro side.‘B’ argues con side.Switch when prompted.Usually after 2-3 minutes.Develops intellectual depth and empathy.
51 Formulating Questions
Periodically stop class and have students write down a question they have as they think through the content.If they do not have a question, write: “I am not thinking well enough to have a question.”Periodically stop class and have students write down the question at issue (under discussion)
52 Engaged Lecture: 10/3 Lecture for no more than 10 minutes.
Have students process for at least 3 minutes
53 Challenge Inert Knowledge
Take any fact in the course content.Have students think of the fact as a hypothesis.Challenge students to explain the background logic that informs the fact.
54 What are your students intellectual needs?
55 What can be done within our instruction to help students become:
Agents for change?Interdisciplinary thinkingMake informed judgmentsLife long learners?Intellectually and culturally flexible?
56 Your Thinking Free Trap You You Hold you Open your Hostage within mind
Trap or freeYour Thinkingcan eitherTrapYouFreeYouOpen yourmindto new waysof thinkingHold youHostage withinuncriticallyheldbeliefsIntellectual Language
Она заставляла себя не думать о. Ей нужно было сосредоточиться на неотложных вещах, требующих срочного решения. - Я возьму на себя лабораторию систем безопасности, - сказал Стратмор.